The 1970s

1 in 8 women are diagnosed with breast cancer in their lifetime. In the 70s clinical trials in Manchester showed tamoxifen could block the production of oestrogen and stop or reverse tumour growth. It is now widely used helping more women to survive.

Hepatitis B affects around 180,000 people in the UK. The virus, which affects the liver, was first identified in 1965. Babies born after 1 Aug 2017 are now vaccinated against it.

Developed in the 1970s by a Nobel prize winner, computed tomography scans can produce detailed images of structures inside the body to aid diagnosis and treatment. Now approximately 4 million CT scans take place each year in the NHS.

Today, all major UK hospitals have whole-body MRI scanners to diagnose and monitor disease. Use of MRI as a diagnostic tool wouldn't be possible if it wasn't for the Nobel Prize winning work of Sir Peter Mansfield and Paul C Lauterbur.

In 1975, scientists worked out how to isolate and produce unlimited numbers of individual, or monoclonal, antibodies. The ability of antibodies to bind specifically to substances makes them a powerful tool in medical research, and today they're used for everything from tissue typing for organ transplants to home pregnancy tests.

Screening newborn babies' hearing means hearing aids and cochlear implants can be given before speech and language starts to develop. This screening was made possible by Prof David Kemp's discovery of otoacoustic emissions in 1978.