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Glossary

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
  • Participant

    An individual who is studied in a trial, often, but not necessarily, a patient.
  • Patient Safety Translational Research Centres

    Patient Safety Translational Research Centres (PSTRCs) conduct and support research to investigate ways to improve the safety, quality and effectiveness of the services that the NHS provides to its patients.
  • PDG

    NIHR Programme Development Grants (PDG) support researchers to carry out targeted preparatory work to strengthen an application for future full Programme Grants for Applied Research (PGfAR) funding award.
  • Peer review

    A reviewing process for checking the quality and importance of reports of research. An article submitted for publication in a peer-reviewed journal is reviewed by other experts in the area.
  • PGfAR

    NIHR Programme Grants for Applied Research (PGfAR) funds collaborative, multidisciplinary programmes of applied research to solve health and social care challenges.
  • PHR

    The PHR Programme evaluates interventions taking place outside of the NHS that aim to improve public health.
  • Pilot studies

    Pilot studies are a smaller version of the main study used to test whether the components of the main study can all work together. It is focused on the processes of the main study, for example to ensure that recruitment, randomisation, treatment, and follow-up assessments all run smoothly.
  • Placebo

    An inactive substance or procedure administered to a participant, usually to compare its effects with those of a real drug or other intervention, but sometimes for the psychological benefit of the belief of receiving treatment. Placebos are used in clinical trials to blind people to their treatment allocation. Placebos should be indistinguishable from the active intervention to ensure adequate blinding.
  • Policy Research Programme

    The NIHR Policy Research Programme (PRP) enables evidence informed policy making in health and social care.
  • Policy Research Units

    Policy Research Units (PRUs) are 15 university-based research groups that undertake research to inform government and arms-length bodies making policy decisions about health and social care.
  • Power

    The probability of rejecting the null hypothesis when a specific alternative hypothesis is true. In clinical trials, power is the probability that a trial will detect, as statistically significant, an intervention effect of a specified size. Ideally, we want a test to have high power.
  • PPI

    Patient and Public Involvement. In research, PPI takes various forms, from involvement of public contributors in priority setting, representation on committees, and as reviewers. NIHR appoint public board and panel members via open competition.
  • Pragmatic trial

    A trial that aims to test a treatment policy in a 'real life' situation, when many people may not receive all of the treatment, and may use other treatments as well.
  • Preclinical study

    Research using animals to find out if a drug, procedure, or treatment is likely to be useful. Preclinical studies take place before any testing in humans is done.
  • Primary outcome

    The outcome of greatest importance.
  • Primary research

    Experimental studies generating new data (cf. secondary research, which analyses existing data).
  • Prioritisation

    Rigorously examining potential topics for research to identify their importance and where the need for new evidence is greatest.
  • Probability

    The chance or risk of something happening.
  • Programme Development Grants

    NIHR Programme Development Grants (PDG) support researchers to carry out targeted preparatory work to strengthen an application for future full Programme Grants for Applied Research (PGfAR) funding award.
  • Programme Grants for Applied Research

    NIHR Programme Grants for Applied Research (PGfAR) funds collaborative, multidisciplinary programmes of applied research to solve health and social care challenges.
  • Protocol

    The plan or set of steps to be followed in a study.
  • PRP

    The NIHR Policy Research Programme (PRP) enables evidence informed policy making in health and social care.
  • PRUs

    NIHR Policy Research Units (PRUs) undertake research to inform government and arms-length bodies making policy decisions about health and social care. The units create a critical mass of experts for research in priority areas for health and social care policy.
  • PSTRCs

    Patient Safety Translational Research Centres (PSTRCs) conduct and support research to investigate ways to improve the safety, quality and effectiveness of the services that the NHS provides to its patients.