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Glossary

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
  • Bias

    A systematic error or deviation in results or inferences from the truth. In studies of the effects of health care, the main types of bias arise from systematic differences in the groups that are compared (selection bias), the care that is provided, exposure to other factors apart from the intervention of interest (performance bias), withdrawals or exclusions of people entered into a study (attrition bias) or how outcomes are assessed (detection bias). Reviews of studies may also be affected by reporting bias, where a biased subset of all the relevant data is available.
  • Biomedical Research Centres

    NIHR’s 20 Biomedical Research Centres (BRCs) are collaborations between world-leading universities and NHS organisations that bring together academics and clinicians to translate lab-based scientific breakthroughs into potential new treatments, diagnostics and medical technologies.
  • Blinding

    The process of preventing those involved in a trial from knowing which comparison group a participant belongs to. The risk of bias is minimised when fewer people know who is receiving the experimental intervention or the control intervention. Participants, caregivers, outcome assessors, and analysts are all candidates for being blinded. Blinding of certain groups is not always possible, for example, surgeons in surgical trials.
  • Blood and Transplant Research Units

    Blood and Transplant Research Units (BTRUs) are research four partnerships between universities and NHS Blood & Transplant (NHSBT) that undertake research to improve the supply of blood, blood products, stem cells and tissues, and organs for transplantation.
  • BRCs

    NIHR’s 20 Biomedical Research Centres (BRCs) are collaborations between world-leading universities and NHS organisations that bring together academics and clinicians to translate lab-based scientific breakthroughs into potential new treatments, diagnostics and medical technologies.
  • BTRUs

    Blood and Transplant Research Units (BTRUs) are research four partnerships between universities and NHS Blood & Transplant (NHSBT) that undertake research to improve the supply of blood, blood products, stem cells and tissues, and organs for transplantation.