A trial design used to assess the individual contribution of treatments given in combination, as well as any interactive effect they may have. In a trial using a 2x2 factorial design, participants are allocated to one of four possible combinations. This type of study is usually carried out in circumstances where no interaction is likely.
Food and Drug Administration: the Competent Authority in the United States, giving authorisation to conduct clinical trials and issuing marketing licences.
Feasibility Studies are pieces of research done before a main study in order to answer the question "Can this study be done?". They are used to estimate important parameters that are needed to design the main study.
A focus group is a small group of people brought together to talk. The purpose is to listen and gather information. It is a good way to find out how people feel or think about an issue, or to come up with possible solutions to problems.
The observation over a period of time of study/trial participants to measure outcomes under investigation.
Full and appropriate funding
Full and appropriate funding is provided because no upper limit is placed on the amount of funding granted for a project. Subject to availability of funds, if the question is important enough and the science requires it, we will fund it. For University based projects, we will fund up to 80 per cent of the Full Economic Cost (FEC) of the research, and 100 per cent of the direct costs for NHS Trust based projects. Other organisations are welcome to apply to our programmes and should discuss costing with us.
An organisation providing funding for a study (through agreements, grants or donations to an authorised member of the employing and/ or care organisation). The main funder typically has a key role in scientific quality assurance. In any case, it remains responsible for securing value for money.
A group of experts who consider grant applications and reviewer reports to decide whether to recommend funding.