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Glossary

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
  • i4i

    The NIHR Invention for Innovation (i4i) Programme supports the preclinical and clinical development of medical devices in areas of existing or emerging patient need.
  • Implementation

    Implementation involves putting research findings into practice. This means using research findings to make appropriate decisions and changes to health and social care policy and practice.
  • Incapacitated adult

    An adult unable by virtue of physical or mental incapacity to give informed consent.
  • Inclusion criteria

    Specific criteria that are defined within the study protocol that expressly include specific individuals to participate in a study e.g. individuals within a certain age range, with a specific condition, etc.
  • Informed consent

    A process by which a participant voluntarily confirms his or her willingness to participate in a particular trial, after having been informed of all aspects of the trial that are relevant to the decision to participate.
  • Interaction

    The situation in which the effect of one independent variable on the outcome is affected by the value of a second independent variable.
  • Interim analysis

    Analysis comparing intervention groups at any time before the formal completion of a trial, usually before recruitment is complete. Often used with stopping rules so that a trial can be stopped if participants are being put at risk unnecessarily. Timing and frequency of interim analyses should be specified in the protocol.
  • Intervention

    The process of intervening on people, groups, entities or objects in an experimental study. In controlled trials, the word is sometimes used to describe the regimens in all comparison groups, including placebo and no-treatment arms.
  • Intervention group

    A group of participants in a study receiving a particular health care intervention. Parallel group trials include at least two intervention groups.
  • Interventional trial

    A clinical study in which participants are assigned to receive one or more interventions (or no intervention) so that researchers can evaluate the effects of the interventions on biomedical or health-related outcomes. The assignments are determined by the study protocol. Participants may receive diagnostic, therapeutic, or other types of interventions.
  • Interview

    In research, an interview is a conversation between two or more people, where a researcher asks questions to obtain information from the person (or people) being interviewed. Interviews can be carried out in person (face-to-face) or over the phone.
  • Invention for Innovation

    The NIHR Invention for Innovation (i4i) Programme supports the preclinical and clinical development of medical devices in areas of existing or emerging patient need.
  • Investigator

    A person who is conducting a (clinical) study . Those researchers leading the team are referred to as chief investigator or principal investigator.