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Glossary

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
  • Observational study

    A study in which the investigators do not seek to intervene, but simply observe the course of events. There is a greater risk of selection bias than in experimental studies.
  • Official final publication date

    The earliest date that the final version-of-record is made available on the publisher's website.
  • Open Access

    The online permanent availability of scholarly work via the internet, free of charge to individuals who wish to access, read and re-use.
  • Open Government Licence

    (OGL) Work created by officers or servants of the Crown in the course of their duties is Crown copyright and cannot usually be assigned away from the Crown. Collaborations between Crown officers or servants and others will also be Crown copyright in respect of the Crown contributions. The default licence which must be used for most Crown copyright information is the Open Government Licence.
  • Open label

    Describes a clinical trial in which masking is not used. That means that all parties involved with the trial know which participants have been assigned which interventions.
  • OpenAIRE guidelines

    Metadata specifications set by OpenAIRE.
  • OpenDOAR

    Directory of Open Access Repositories - An online OA repository which lists information such as metadata policy and location.
  • ORCID

    ORCID provides a persistent digital identifier (an ORCID iD) to researchers that distinguishes them from every other researcher.
  • Outcome

    A component of a participant's clinical and functional status after an intervention has been applied, that is used to assess the effectiveness of an intervention.
  • Outcome measures

    Outcome measures are measurements of the effects of a treatment or service. They might include physical measurements – for example, measuring blood pressure – or psychological measurements – for example, measuring people’s sense of well-being. So if someone takes part in research, they may be asked questions, or they may be asked to have extra tests to assess how well the treatment or service has worked.
  • Output

    Published results from a research project. NIHR projects often generate papers that are published in the scientific literature. Full details of NIHR projects and their results are published in special reports or journals. Some projects generate briefing papers or other outputs for particular audiences.