The NIHR is the nation's largest funder of health and care research and provides the people, facilities and technology that enable research to thrive. We work in partnership with the NHS, universities, local government, other research funders (including industry and charities), patients and the public to improve the health and wealth of the nation.
In 2018/19, the NIHR Clinical Research Network (CRN) supported 562 primary care studies, 209 of which were new studies, and recruited 160,146 patients to studies within this specialty area.
The NIHR School for Primary Care Research is a partnership between nine leading academic centres for primary care research in England. The School carries out world-leading research in primary care, providing a focus for primary care research within the NIHR and supporting the development of primary care researchers.
Screening and brief intervention for obesity in primary care (BWeL)
Obesity greatly increases the risk of long-term health consequences - including diabetes, cardiovascular disease, disability and depression - creating a huge strain on health services and costing the NHS in England an estimated £6.1 billion a year.
Guidelines recommend that GPs and primary care practitioners routinely screen and offer advice to their patients to motivate weight loss through behavioural weight loss programmes. Yet despite the high prevalence of obesity - primary care patient surveys and recordings of consultations indicate that GPs do not routinely intervene.
The NIHR Clinical Research Network (CRN)-supported BWeL trial set out to assess the effect of delivering a brief, opportunistic behavioural-change intervention within primary care services on weight loss amongst clinically obese patients. It was the first clinical trial to look at the potential impact that different opportunistic GP interventions may have on reducing obesity in primary care.
The study found that the behavioural change intervention used was not only clinically effective and short enough to be deliverable within GP appointments, but also extremely cost effective.
Identification of gambling problems in primary care
Gambling is increasing in the UK, with surveys indicating that around 59% of British adults had gambling activities in 2010, up 7% from three years earlier. Primary care presents a potential context for identifying patients with a gambling problem, who would benefit from the early intervention or specialist services. Experts say it is an area that needs more attention if primary care services are to help those in need.
In a cross sectional study funded by the NIHR School for Primary Care Research, a team of researchers at the University of Bristol explored gambling problems and gambling-related problems (anxiety, financial strain and relationship breakdowns), among 1000 patients attending general practices across 11 general practices in southwest England.
The study found that an improved understanding of the burden of, and responses to, gambling problems is required by general practices in order to address the health-related behaviour.
Evaluating an online consultation system in GP practices
GP workload has increased by 16 percent between 2007 and 2014, putting pressure on UK primary care services. GP practices have struggled to meet this challenge, and two thirds of GPs report unmanageable workloads. Difficulties accessing appointments have become a source of patient dissatisfaction. Online consultations are potentially a way to improve patient access and to reduce GPs’ workload from face-to-face consultations.
Across the participating practices patient use of the system was low during the pilot. Although the system did save some patients having to see their GP, the majority of e-consultations resulted in either a face-to-face consultation or a telephone call from a GP.
Education and support to help GPs spot early signs of psychosis
Psychotic disorders such as schizophrenia cause enormous disability and are very expensive for families and society. Early intervention services identify and treat people with first episode psychosis or mental states putting them at high risk of developing psychosis with the aim of improving outcomes and possibly preventing more serious disease and disability.
In the Liaison with Education and General Practices (LEGS) trial, funded by NIHR Programme Grants for Applied Research, 24 general practices were randomised to a “high-intensity” intervention which involved a specialist mental health professional providing a one hour educational session at each practice, a booster session one year later and ongoing liaison and support.
The researchers found that this tailored education session doubled the early identification and referral of people with, or at risk of, psychotic illness compared to a postal educational campaign or practice as usual. It was also the most cost-effective intervention mainly due to the potential for subsequent savings from prevention of people developing more severe illness.
It is widely known that back pain can be a considerable problem for some people and remains a challenge for GPs and physiotherapists to treat.
The STarT Back Trial, funded by Arthritis Research UK, is an example of a stratified care approach according to a patient’s prognosis (low, medium or high risk). By using a targeted questionnaire tool, primary care clinicians can identify the correct course of treatment for the patient. The study compared the clinical and cost effectiveness of those participants who received the stratified care approach with those that did not.
The study recruited 1573 participants, 18 years and over who were suffering from back pain. Consultations took place at 10 general practices within West Midlands North region. Potential participants were identified via support from the NIHR Clinical Research Network.
The NIHR Clinical Research Network (CRN) Primary Care Specialty supported research that will help GPs diagnose urinary tract infections in children and improve antibiotic use.
The study, funded by the NIHR Health Technology Assessment (HTA) Programme, sought to develop algorithms to accurately identify pre-school children in whom urine should be obtained and assess whether or not dipstick urinalysis provides additional diagnostic information.
After a three-year study involving more than 7,000 children, researchers have developed a technique to help GPs and nurses diagnose urinary tract infections in children. There is also hope is that this will help to better target antibiotic prescribing, so only those who are likely to benefit from antibiotics receive them.
We provide world-class health service infrastructure - research support staff such as clinical research nurses, and research support services such as pharmacy, pathology and radiology - to support organisations seeking to conduct clinical research in the NHS in England. Some of this research is funded by the NIHR, but most of it is funded by NHS non-commercial partners and industry.
We are working with researchers and primary care practitioners such as GPs, practice nurses, pharmacists and dentists to promote the successful delivery of research studies in the NHS. We support a wide range of research including studies which look at:
Promoting a healthier lifestyle
Disease diagnosis and prevention
Management of long-term illnesses such as diabetes or hypertension
Prevention of future ill-health
Treating common conditions such as tonsillitis or influenza
Where there are considerable overlaps with other specialty areas, for example diabetes, mental health and cardiovascular disease, we work closely with our colleagues from across the Network to deliver high quality research in a primary care setting.
Each of our 15 Local Clinical Research Networks has at least one nominated local Clinical Specialty Research Lead for Primary care. These clinicians lead research groups to promote and support Primary care health research across health and care settings in their area.
Preparing primary and community care in the NHS for genomic research: A joint report by the NIHR CRN and RCGP
In June 2019, the NIHR Clinical Research Network (CRN) published a joint paper in partnership with the Royal College of General Practitioners (RCGP) on preparing primary and community care NHS organisations for genomic research. Find out more and download the report here.
The General Practice Podcast
Associate Professor Philip Evans, NIHR Clinical Research Network National Specialty Lead for Primary Care, talks about the role of research in general practice in this podcast for Ockham Health.
The Clinical Research Network (CRN) Primary Care specialty has developed close links with key stakeholders and clinical researchers to input into the delivery of studies and influence the primary care research agenda. We have also established a longstanding partnership with the Royal College of General Practitioners (RCGP), supporting the following initiatives:
The awards recognise outstanding contributions of NHS general practices and First5® who are active in research. For further information visit the RCGP Research Awards webpage.
Research Ready® for pharmacies was developed by the Royal Pharmaceutical Society and the Clinical Research Network to support pharmacies to carry out high quality research. This quality framework helps pharmacies to develop a research culture and ethos.
Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD)
Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) is a UK Government research service, jointly supported by the National Institute for Health Research and the Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency. CPRD provides access to anonymised NHS data for observational and interventional public health research.
Find out more about contributing and using data on the CPRD website.
The NIHR provides the support and facilities the NHS needs for first-class research by funding a range of infrastructure.
NIHR Applied Research Collaborations
NIHR Applied Research Collaborations (ARCs) support applied health and care research that responds to, and meets, the needs of local populations and local health and care systems. The following ARCs undertake research in primary care:
The NIHR School for Primary Care Research is a partnership between nine leading academic centres for primary care research in England. The School brings together academics and practitioners from across the country to collaborate on cutting edge, topical primary care studies that have an impact both at policy level and in general practices around the country.
Work with our infrastructure
The NIHR Office for Clinical Research Infrastructure (NOCRI) helps public, charity and industry research funders work in partnership with NIHR infrastructure. Find out more about how they can support collaborations in the partners and industry section of our website.
The NIHR funds and supports world-class experts in the field of primary care. In addition, our experts in the NIHR Clinical Research Network (National Specialty Leads) can advise on delivering your primary care study in the NHS or wider health and social care settings.
Associate Professor Philip Evans
Associate Professor Philip Evans MPhil FRCGP is the NIHR Clinical Research Network National Specialty Lead for Primary Care.
Associate Professor Evans is a GP at St Leonard’s Practice in Exeter, Devon. He is the NIHR Clinical Research Network Specialty Cluster Lead for Dermatology, Mental Health, Primary Care and Public Health based at King’s College in London and the National Specialty Lead for Primary Care both inside and outside of general practice.
He trained in Guy’s Hospital and then did GP training in Plymouth before moving to Exeter as a GP in 1987 and he has been in the same practice ever since. Professor Evans was an RCGP Research Training Fellow from 1988-1990 and then Lecturer in the University of Exeter. He is now an Associate Professor in the University of Exeter Medical School. He has a research interest in the management of pre-diabetes and also the prevention and diagnosis of type 2 diabetes in primary care.
He has been Director of three Primary Care Research Networks, most recently the Primary Care Research Network South West.
He is the Head of the School of Medicine at Keele University, and an NIHR Research Professor in General Practice. Professor Mallen is also a Fellow of the Royal College of General Practitioners, Fellow of the Faculty of Public Health and a Founding Fellow of the Faculty of Clinical Informatics, in addition to leading Keele's Global Health Research and serving as the Director of the Wellcome Trust Doctoral Training Programme for Primary Care.
His research interests focus on improving the management of common rheumatological complaints in primary care. In particular, he is interested in improving the diagnosis and prognosis of musculoskeletal disorders in a general practice setting, both in the UK and in low and middle-income country settings.
Refreshed NIHR School for Primary Care Research to strengthen whole primary care research sector
The NIHR has announced the fourth phase of the School for Primary Care Research (SPCR), with a refreshed membership and a new focus on supporting the full spectrum of primary care research and building research capacity.